Fire doors are the first line of defense to ensure life safety when a fire occurs. Because of their flame-retardant materials and smoke-proof strips, they can prevent the spread of fire and smoke, and ensure that people can evacuate safely. They are generally installed in evacuation stairwells and front rooms. , walkways, vertical shafts, fire compartments, etc. Fire doors are classified into wooden fire doors, steel fire doors, steel-wood fire doors, etc. According to the new national standard fire doors, they are divided into three grades: A, B, and C. So how to choose a fire door? Here is a guide for you to choose and buy fire doors for home improvement.
Classification: The fire door standard (GB12955-2008) introduced the concepts and requirements of partial heat-insulated fire doors and non-heat-insulated fire doors from international and foreign standards. Classifies fully insulated fire doors (Class A), partially insulated fire doors (Class B) and non-insulated fire doors (Class C).
The fire resistance ratings of Class A, B and C fire doors are 1.5h, 1.0h and 0.5h.
Filling material If the door leaf of the fire door is filled with material, it should be filled with fire-proof and heat-insulating material that is non-toxic and harmless to the human body.
The timber used for timber fire doors shall be flame-retardant timber or composite timber wrapped with fireproof boards. The moisture content of wood used for fire doors after flame retardant treatment and then drying treatment should not be greater than 12%; the moisture content of wood after being made into fire doors should not be greater than the local equilibrium moisture content.
Steel fire door frames and door leaf panels shall be made of steel materials with properties no lower than cold-rolled thin steel plates, and reinforcements for fire doors may be made of steel materials with properties no less than hot-rolled steel materials.
Fire locks The door locks installed on fire doors shall be fire locks. Where there is a lock cylinder mechanism on the door leaf, the fireproof lock should have a handle or a push lever mechanism, and it is not allowed to replace the handle with a round or spherical knob (except for special parts, such as pipe well doors, etc.).
The door closer should be equipped with a fire door closer, or a door closing device that allows the normally open fire door to automatically close the door leaf when a fire occurs (except for special parts, such as pipe well doors, etc.).
If the glass class A fire door is inlaid with fireproof glass, its fire resistance performance should meet the conditions of class A fire door. If Class B and Class C fire-resistant doors are inlaid with fire-resistant glass, their fire-resistant performance should meet the corresponding fire-resistant door conditions.
wooden fire door
Advantages Wooden fire doors have high plasticity, the color of the door leaf can be painted, and there are many colors to choose from to meet the needs of customers in different scenarios. The cost is low, and it can be recycled.
Disadvantages: fear of water, poor corrosion resistance, not recommended for use in humid environments, not as durable as steel fire doors, and relatively easy to damage.
steel fire door
Advantages Strong fire resistance, moderate price, high sound insulation and heat insulation, durable.
Disadvantages are self-heavy, laborious to open and monotonous in style, not beautiful enough.
Advantages No need to paint, cost saving, high hardness, good gloss, no deformation, moth proof, moisture proof, anti-fouling, etc.
Disadvantages According to the MAIGOO life editor, it is relatively heavy and has high requirements for door pockets and hinges.
Fireproof glass door
Advantages Light transmission, fire prevention, sound insulation, beautiful appearance.
Disadvantages The transportation is inconvenient and the price is relatively high
Access Control Fire Door
Ordinary fire doors can be equipped with an access control system, but in the indoor direction (also called the evacuation direction), a fire alarm switch must be installed. In an emergency, the glass can be directly broken to open the electric control lock. If you want to install an access control system on the fire exit, you must install a set of escape door locks (also called fire locks, passage locks, and alarm locks), which can only be passed through the fire inspection.
Indoor Fire Door
High-rise buildings with more than 18 floors need to have a refuge floor, and there are refuge rooms in the refuge floor, while residential refuge rooms are usually bedrooms, so the bedroom door, that is, the interior door, has the requirements for fire protection and heat insulation, that is, indoor fire doors or refuge rooms. Fire doors came into being.
Explosion-proof fire door
Explosion-proof doors are used to prevent explosions, while fire-proof doors are used to prevent the spread of fire. Combining the characteristics of these two kinds of doors, the explosion-proof fire door can not only be fireproof, but also explosion-proof.
Other function fire doors
Quickly lock the fire door, and quickly open the fire door in case of fire.
Fire shutter door
The fire shutter door is a kind of fire prevention and heat insulation facility suitable for large openings of buildings. The product plays a certain role in the design and installation of technology. Fire shutter doors are widely used in the fire partition areas of industrial and civil buildings, which can effectively prevent the spread of fire and ensure the safety of life and property. They are indispensable fire prevention facilities in modern buildings.
swing fire door
Swing type fire door is composed of door frame, door leaf, fireproof hinge, fireproof lock and other fireproof hardware accessories, with the hinge as the axis perpendicular to the ground, and the axis can be rotated clockwise or counterclockwise in a single direction to open or close the fire door of the door leaf .
sliding fire door
Sliding doors and revolving doors cannot be used as fire doors, at least not in China. In foreign countries, sliding doors are used as fire doors, but China does not allow them.
Normally closed fire door
It is generally composed of fire door leaves, door frames, door closers, sealing strips, etc. Double or multiple normally closed fire doors are also equipped with sequencers. Normally closed fire doors usually do not require electrical professionals to provide self-control design, but there are some special cases such as: normally closed fire doors on evacuation passages, when some large construction parties have management requirements such as anti-theft, electrical professionals should cooperate with the design, It is possible to reduce security risks in an all-round way.
Normally open fire door
In addition to all the accessories of a normally closed fire door, a normally open fire door must also be equipped with a fire door release switch, and an automatic control design must be provided by an electrical professional. It is usually applied to evacuation channels with a lot of people and flows.
Electric fire door
The so-called electric fire door means that when the induction device of the electric fire door senses some fire-related signals, it will automatically close. The use of electric fire doors can prevent the spread of fire, and at the same time ensure the safety of everyone's life to the greatest extent.
Other Technical Fire Doors
Multifunctional fire door with built-in fire door closer.
New national standard fire door rating
Class A fire doors
Class A fire doors are also known as fully insulated fire doors, which can meet the requirements of fire resistance and heat insulation and fire integrity at the same time within the specified time. h (Class A) and 2.0h, 3.0h.
Class B fire doors
Class B fire doors are also called partial heat insulation fire doors. The fire resistance and heat insulation requirements are 0.5h, and the fire resistance integrity levels are 1.0h, 1.5h, 2.0h, and 3.0h.
Class C fire doors
Class C fire doors are also known as non-insulated fire doors, which have no requirements for fire resistance and heat insulation. They only meet the requirements of fire integrity within the specified fire resistance time, and the fire integrity levels are 1.0h, 1.5h, and 2.0h respectively. , 3.0h.
Where is the fire door located?
Close the evacuation stairs leading to the aisle; close the elevator room leading to the front room and the door leading to the aisle from the front room.
Inspection doors for vertical pipeline wells such as cable wells, pipe wells, flue drains, garbage lanes, etc.
Divide the fire compartments, and control the firewalls and doors on the fire partition walls set up in the building area of the compartments. When it is difficult to set up a firewall or fire door in a building, a fire shutter door should be used instead, and at the same time, it must be protected by a water curtain.
Specifications (such as GB50016-2014 "Code for Fire Protection Design of Buildings") or the design of partition walls with special requirements for fire protection and smoke prevention.
Distribution position of fire doors at all levels
If the Class A fire door has two important fire protection areas, and the two areas have been separated by a firewall, then the place where the two areas are connected, that is, the opening position from one area to the other, needs to be installed with a Class A fire protection door. Door. That is to say, Class A fire doors are installed in areas with relatively high fire isolation levels.
Class B fire doors According to maigoo.com, Class B fire doors are generally installed in evacuation stairs and front rooms.
Class C fire doors For vertical wells such as cable wells, pipe wells, flue exhaust ducts, exhaust ducts, and garbage lanes, Class C fire doors need to be installed to prevent fire and smoke from spreading through shafts or pipe wells.
Home improvement fire doors or anti-theft doors
Generally, it is enough to choose a security door with fire protection function for the entrance door. Fire doors are used in bedrooms, kitchens and other areas, and the current fire doors are of high aesthetics, so there is no need to worry about affecting the home decoration style.